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# DC EC 05: longitudonal reinforcement in column under compression and bending

## Description

Geometry Load Cross-section: Material: C25/30 Concrete cover: Reinforcement distribution: Identical Only upper and lower Design forces: EN 1992-1-1 [- -]
How to model a column in Diamonds that can be compared with handcalculations
• Diamonds always looks for the most economical reinforcement ratio. This is not always neat according to the local axes of the rod, but often according to the main axes of inertia. While in hand calculations the load is placed along a local axis and the calculation is also performed in that direction. To impose that behavior in Diamonds, you must choose only top and bottom reinforcement.
By choosing an ‘identical’ reinforcement distribution, you ask him to choose the top and bottom reinforcement equally. This is a reinforcement distribution for which graphs/tables are suitable for manual calculations.
• Eurocode 2 offers simplified methods (EN 1992-1-1 §5.8.7 and §5.8.8) to include 2nd order effects and imperfections into the results. The method based on nominal curvature (EN 1992-1-1 §5.8.8) is implemented in Diamonds. This method results in an increased bending moment.
In Diamonds the method for nominal curvature is selected by default. Because we neglected these effects in this example, the method must be deselected.
• According to Eurocode 2, reinforcement is required for the forces in ULS, possibly increased with additional reinforcement to limit the stresses in SLS. It is not known in advance whether additional reinforcement will be required for SLS. Since we are only doing a ULS calculation in this example, we turn off the stress limits in SLS in Diamonds (by making a copy of C25/30 and editing the copy).

## Results

Handcalculation

### Method 1 : using diagrams

Graph 10.2a from Gewapend beton: numeri (click here to open the graph) shows as a function of and . Using this graph and the results above, we can deduct:

Longitudonal reinforcement calculated by Diamonds (EN 1992-1-1 [- -])

Results Independent reference Diamonds Difference
Longitudonal reinforcement 518mm² 514mm² ≈ 0%

## References

• EN 1992-1-1: 2005 + AC: 2010
• Van Hooymissen, L., Spegelaere, M., Van Gysel, A., & De Vylder, W. (2002). Gewapend beton. Academia Press, example 1 on page 10.54.
Keep in mind that the calculations in this book are made done using the NBN B15-002, which is comparable to ENV 1992-1. We used EN 1992-1 [- -] in our verification example.
But it still remains a good reference if you want to understand how reinforcement calculations work.
• Gruyaert, E., & Minne, P. (2019). Gewapend beton: numeri.
This reference is a summary of Gewapend beton (2002) but with updated formula and principles according to EN 1992-1-1. This document contains multiple graphs and tables helping the design of reinforced concrete.
• Tested in Diamonds 2023r01.