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# How to do the elastic analysis for concrete

Contents

## Theoretical background

According to Eurocode 2nd order effects (EN 1992-1-1 §5.1.4 (1)P) and imperfections must be taken into account.

• For the 2nd order effects (EN 1992-1-1 §5.8.5 (1)), you may do
• either a full 2nd order calculation
• either use one the two simplified methodes:
• method based on nominal stiffness (see EN 1992-1-1 §5.8.7): not implemented in Diamonds
• method based on nominal curvature (see EN 1992-1-1 §5.8.8)
In this method the 2nd order effects are taking into account by increasing the 1st order bending moment MEd with a nominal second order moment equal to e2 x NEd.

MEd.reinforcement = MEd + e2 x NEd

e2 [mm] is function of the effective length (syn. buckling length).

• The imperfections can be represented by an inclination θi. The inclination θi may be taken into account (EN 1992-1-1 §5.2 (7)):
• either by translating the inclination θi to equivalent horizontal forces (= ‘Global imperfections’ in Diamonds)
• either by translating the inclination θi to an accidendental eccentricity ei
In this method the imperfections are taking into account by increasing the 1st order bending moment MEd with an additonal moment equal to ei x NEd.

MEd.reinforcement = MEd + ei x NEd

The default value for ei is often set to 20mm in acccordance to EN 1992-1-1 §6.1(4).

So if you would use the simplyfied method for both the 2nd order effects and the imperfections, you will end up with the following bending moment:

MEd.reinforcement = MEd + e2 x NEd + ei x NEd = MEd + NEd x (e2 + ei)

## In Diamonds

Depending on the selected options during the elastic analysis , you will have to (un)check some options in the Buckling parameters window. An overview:

Case 1: assume you do a 1st order calculation [Recommended option]

 ⇒ Then: ei = 20mm because global imperfections have NOT BEEN taken into account yet e2 ≠ 0 because 2nd order effects have NOT BEEN taken into account yet So, in the window you must: check the option ‘Verify buckling with an additional eccentricity’ set the buckling lengths to a meaningful value, because e2 = ft(buckling lengths). set the accidental eccentricity ei to 20mm

Case 2: assume you do a 1st order calc. + global imperfections

 ⇒ Then: ei = 0 because global imperfections have been taken into account e2 ≠ 0 because 2nd order effects have NOT BEEN taken into account yet So, in the window you must: check the option ‘Verify buckling with an additional eccentricity’ set the buckling lengths to a meaningful value, because e2 = ft(buckling lengths) set the accidental eccentricity ei to 0mm

If your model contains multiple independent structures (for example: isolated columns), make one Diamonds-file for each structure.

Case 3: assume you do a 2nd order calc. + global imperfections

 ⇒ Then: ei = 0 because global imperfections have been taken into account e2 = 0 because 2nd order effects have already been taken into account So, in the window you must: uncheck the option ‘Verify buckling with an additional eccentricity’. it is not necessary to calculate the buckling lengths, because only e2 = ft(buckling lengths), and e2 =0 because the option ‘Verify buckling with an additional eccentricity’ is unchecked. The entered value for the accidental eccentricity ei is irelevant because the option ‘Verify buckling with an additional eccentricity’ is unchecked.

If your model contains multiple independent structures (for example: isolated columns), make one Diamonds-file for each structure.

Case 4: assume you do a 2nd order calc.

 ⇒ Then: ei = 20mm because global imperfections have NOT BEEN taken into account yet e2 = 0 because 2nd order effects have already been taken into account So, in the window you must: check the option ‘Verify buckling with an additional eccentricity’ set the buckling lengths in both directions to a small value (1cm for example, but not 0!), so that e2 = 0. Otherwise the 2nd order effect, will be taken into account twice! set the accidental eccentricity ei to 20mm